The first beginnings of counting methods go back to the Neolithic Age.

The first clear signs of the existence of extensive mathematical knowledge date back to 4000 BC. 

The two advanced cultures of the Egyptians and Summerer already knew the 4 basic calculation types as well as an approximation for Pi. 

The Summerer used the cuneiform, which was carved in soft clay and then fired. By a stock of about 400 clay tablets, which were excavated in 1850, Babylonian mathematics is very well documented. 

About the mathematics of the Egyptians exist only few sources because of the sensitive Papyri paper.

Certain is that the Egyptians already used a decimal system.  T

he Mayan numbering is based on base 20. The reason for this is believed that the Maya counted with fingers and toes. 

The Greek mathematics begins about 600 - 400 BC. Here begins the mathematics as science with Pythagoras of Samos. The Greeks produced many great mathematicians like Thales, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, and many more. Many of their findings are still used today after more than 2000 years. 

In the Islamic world, Muslim mathematicians adopted Indian positional arithmetic and further developed Greek and Indian trigonometry and complemented Greek geometry. 

The knowledge of antiquity was initially stored in monasteries and convent schools. Later they were replaced by universities as centers of learning.

The Arabic traditions and evolution of Greek mathematics as well as the Arabic adaptations of Indian mathematics and digitization took place on the way from translations into Latin and thus became known in Western Europe.